Ultraviolet film reduces bird–glass collision risk


  • Ewa Zyśk-Gorczyńska Glass Traps Foundation
  • Michał Żmihorski Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences


ultraviolet vision, bird-glass collision, birds, anthropogenic hazards


It is estimated that millions of birds globally die due to collisions with glass surfaces. In order to reduce this mortality, it is essential to provide an objective assessment of the effectiveness of bird-friendly preventive methods. Several types of opaque films and stickers are available nowadays and can be highly effective in protecting birds from fatal collisions. However, by being visible to the human eye, they can affect the users’ quality of view from within protected spaces. Products that take advantage of the birds' ability to see ultraviolet light seem to offset these impediments. This study determines if UV-reflective BirdShades film prevents birds from collisions with glass in natural environmental conditions. We monitored eight glass bus stops, where we had previously recorded high numbers of birds collisions. On four of them, we applied UV film, and the other four bus stops were used as control. A generalized additive mixed model showed a significant interaction between time (before vs. after) and film UV treatment (control vs. treated). Before the treatment, the number of collisions tended to be higher at treated bus shelters than control. However, this significantly changed after the treatment, suggesting that UV film reduces bird glass collision rate over 5-fold. Our study is the first worldwide that tested UV film on glass shelters and supports a conclusion that the UV film efficiently reduces the risk of bird collision.

Research articles


2022-09-24 — Updated on 2022-10-07


How to Cite

Zyśk-Gorczyńska, E., & Żmihorski, M. (2022). Ultraviolet film reduces bird–glass collision risk. Ornis Fennica, 99(2–3), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.51812/of.115995 (Original work published September 24, 2022)